tl;dr: If you rely on the
x-forwarded-for header with Cloudfront and have enabled Origin Shield, between October
the 10th 2022 and November the 2nd 2022 the value of this header may have been incorrect for a percentage of requests.
If your API relies on knowing the clients IP address in any way it may have been partially broken during this time.
Amazon Cloudfront is AWS’s content delivery network. AWS runs a large number of edge locations across the world, and those locations proxy requests to your backend, optionally caching static files at the edge. As outlined in this fantastic post by foxy.io , enabling Origin Shield on your Cloudfront distributions can drastically reduce latency. The gains are real:
And the setup is simple, with no application changes needed.
After rolling this out to some of our endpoints, we noticed a change in the distribution of the
headers that we received from Cloudfront. X-Forwarded-For
is a header that contains a comma separated list of IPs from upstream reverse proxies.
After enabling Origin Shield we saw that the first element of this request was not the clients real IP address, it was an IP address assigned to AWS! We quickly disabled Origin Shield and began investigating.
AWS publishes a list of all IP addresses they use here
We exported all requests we received and compared the first value of
x-forwarded-for to this published list of ranges,
and plotted the counts:
This header is commonly used for rate limiting, IP restrictions, fraud detection and anything else that may require the
real clients IP address. For these requests with an incorrect
x-forwarded-for value any functionality that uses it may
We opened a support ticket with AWS on the 25th of October and gave them as much detail as we could. After investigating and acknowledging the issue they gave us the following statement:
Starting on October 10, 2022 customers who utilize the “X-Forwarded-For” header and have Origin Shield enabled started experiencing 403 responses. Customers who utilize the web socket protocol and have Origin Shield enabled but do not have [email protected] enabled started experiencing 5XX responses. The root cause was a recent code change to enhance and improve the performance of the CloudFront platform which inadvertently removed the “X-Forwarded-For” header and/or misrouted web socket traffic towards Origin Shield. To immediately mitigate the impact, affected customers can disable Origin Shield. The code change is being reverted and we expect completion by November 2, 2022.
I applaud them for quickly rolling back (they acknowledged the issue on the 1st of November), but this doesn’t seem great.
X-Forwarded-For is critical if you’re using the clients IP address in any way, and the statement is slightly vague:
the issue was not necessarily that clients received 403 responses, it’s that the
x-forwarded-for header was incorrect.
And it was apparently like this for nearly a month until we noticed it.